Place of Birth: Normandy, France
(Map of Normandy)
The 12th century started out with
Louis VI becoming king in 1108. The king was allowed to begin to
build an army because of the wealth that came from the economy. The
influence of the church and the Christian religion strengthened.
The royal family benefited from the Crusades. The Crusades were military
campaigns to recapture the Holy Land back from the Muslims. During
the rules of Louis VI and Louis VII, the Plantagenet dynasty began to rise
into power. The Plantagenet family had strong bases in both England
and France. Henry II was the first Plantagenet king in England.
He had been the Duke of Normandy. Henry II also gained control of
Aquitaine when he married Eleanor of Aquitaine. Eleanor used to be
married to Louis VII. Louis VIIís son, Philip, maintained relations
with both Henry II and his successor, Richard I, until the 1190s.
The rising Plantagenet threat erupted in conflict. Philip and Richard
began fighting while they both were on the Third Crusade. Richard
had the advantage until his death. After the death of Richard I,
John came into power. By 1206 Philip had defeated Normandy, Maine,
Touraine, Anjou, Poitou, Auvergne, and Brittany. In 1214 he was victorious
against John at the Battle of Bouvines. After this Philip nearly